Three neuromodulation therapies, all using implanted device and electrodes, have been approved to treat adults with drug-resistant focal epilepsy, namely, the vagus nerve stimulation for drug-resistant epilepsy. in 1995, deep brain stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT-DBS) in 2018 (2010 in Europe), and responsive neurostimulation (RNS) in 2014.

Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations (ARUBA) in 2014.

A VNS Therapy generator model, AspireSR®, was introduced and approved for CE Mark in February 2014. In enhancement of former models, the AspireSR incorporated a cardiac-based seizure-detection (CBSD) algorithm that can detect ictal tachycardia and automatically trigger a defined auto-stimulation 1).

In 1995, a multidisciplinary task force from the North American Spine Society (NASS) addressed the deficiencies in commonly used terms defining the conditions of the lumbar disc. It cited several documentations of the problem 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

The nomenclature and classification of Lumbar disc pathology consensus, published in 2001 by the collaborative efforts of the North American Spine Society (NASS), the American Society of Spine Radiology (ASSR), and the American Society of Neuroradiology (ASNR), has guided radiologists, clinicians, and interested public for more than a decade 8). , it was revised in 2014 9) 10).

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79: Limbrick DD Jr, Baird LC, Klimo P Jr, Riva-Cambrin J, Flannery AM; Pediatric Hydrocephalus Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Guidelines Task Force. Pediatric hydrocephalus: systematic literature review and evidence-based guidelines. Part 4: Cerebrospinal fluid shunt or endoscopic third ventriculostomy for the treatment of hydrocephalus in children. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2014 Nov;14 Suppl 1:30-4. doi: 10.3171/2014.7.PEDS14324. Review. PubMed PMID: 25988780.

80: Flannery AM, Duhaime AC, Tamber MS, Kemp J; Pediatric Hydrocephalus Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Guidelines Task Force. Pediatric hydrocephalus: systematic literature review and evidence-based guidelines. Part 3: Endoscopic computer-assisted electromagnetic navigation and ultrasonography as technical adjuvants for shunt placement. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2014 Nov;14 Suppl 1:24-9. doi: 10.3171/2014.7.PEDS14323. Review. PubMed PMID: 25988779.

81: Mazzola CA, Choudhri AF, Auguste KI, Limbrick DD Jr, Rogido M, Mitchell L, Flannery AM; Pediatric Hydrocephalus Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Guidelines Task Force. Pediatric hydrocephalus: systematic literature review and evidence-based guidelines. Part 2: Management of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in premature infants. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2014 Nov;14 Suppl 1:8-23. doi: 10.3171/2014.7.PEDS14322. Review. PubMed PMID: 25988778.

82: Flannery AM, Mazzola CA, Klimo P Jr, Duhaime AC, Baird LC, Tamber MS, Limbrick DD Jr, Nikas DC, Kemp J, Post AF, Auguste KI, Choudhri AF, Mitchell LS, Buffa D. Foreword: Pediatric hydrocephalus: systematic literature review and evidence-based guidelines. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2014 Nov;14 Suppl 1:1-2. doi: 10.3171/2014.8.PEDS14426. PubMed PMID: 25988776.

83: Sachdev B, Rees J. Incidentalomas to glioblastoma multiforme. Oxf Med Case Reports. 2014 Aug 12;2014(5):96-7. doi: 10.1093/omcr/omu036. eCollection 2014 Aug. PubMed PMID: 25988042; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4360296.

84: Christman MP, Turbett SE, Sengupta S, Bakhadirov KU, Williamson CA, Nayak L, Milligan T, Katz JT. Recurrence of herpes simplex encephalitis associated with temozolomide chemoradiation for malignant glioma: a case report and review of the literature. Oxf Med Case Reports. 2014 Mar 12;2014(1):1-4. doi: 10.1093/omcr/omu001. eCollection 2014 Apr. PubMed PMID: 25988006; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4369964.

85: Hashim H, Rosman AK, Abdul Aziz A, Roqiah AK, Bakar NS. Atypical Clival Chordoma in an Adolescent without Imaging Evidence of Bone Involvement. Malays J Med Sci. 2014 Sep-Oct;21(5):78-82. PubMed PMID: 25977639; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4418131.

86: Kandasamy R, Idris Z, Idris B, Chin TY, Ghani AR, Abdullah JM. Intraoperative fluorescence angiography for cerebrovascular neurosurgery in universiti sains malaysia. Malays J Med Sci. 2014 Jul;21(4):69-70. PubMed PMID: 25977627; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4418119.

87: Abdullah JM. The Eight Stages of Trust and “Amanah” in Medicine and the Dunning-Kruger effect. Malays J Med Sci. 2014 Jul;21(4):1-3. PubMed PMID: 25977614; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4418106.

88: Yong RL, Tsankova NM. Emerging interplay of genetics and epigenetics in gliomas: a new hope for targeted therapy. Semin Pediatr Neurol. 2015 Mar;22(1):14-22. doi: 10.1016/j.spen.2014.12.004. Epub 2014 Dec 11. Review. PubMed PMID: 25976256.

89: Vasilyeva LN, Badakva AM, Miller NV, Zobova LN, Roschin VY, Bondar IV. [Long-term recording of single unit activity and criteria for estimation of stability]. Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2014 Nov-Dec;64(6):693-701. Russian. PubMed PMID: 25975145.

90: Ramdasi R, Mahore A. Bamboo in the Brain-an Unusual Mode of Injury. Indian J Surg. 2015 Apr;77(Suppl 1):43-5. doi: 10.1007/s12262-014-1108-4. Epub 2014 May 26. PubMed PMID: 25972640; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4425782.

91: Akcam AT, Ulku A, Koltas IS, Izol V, Bicer OS, Kilicbagir E, Sakman G, Poyrazoglu H, Erman T, Aridogan IA, Parsak CK, Inal M, Iskit S. Clinical characterization of unusual cystic echinococcosis in southern part of Turkey. Ann Saudi Med. 2014 Nov-Dec;34(6):508-16. doi: 10.5144/0256-4947.2014.508. PubMed PMID: 25971825.

92: Loukas M, Germain AS, Gabriel A, John A, Tubbs RS, Spicer D. Coronary artery fistula: a review. Cardiovasc Pathol. 2015 May-Jun;24(3):141-8. doi: 10.1016/j.carpath.2014.01.010. Epub 2014 Feb 10. Review. PubMed PMID: 25965423.

93: Kleijn A, Kloezeman J, Treffers-Westerlaken E, Fulci G, Leenstra S, Dirven C, Debets R, Lamfers M. The therapeutic efficacy of the oncolytic virus Delta24-RGD in a murine glioma model depends primarily on antitumor immunity. Oncoimmunology. 2014 Dec 13;3(9):e955697. eCollection 2014 Oct. PubMed PMID: 25941622; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4292709.

94: Kepp O, Senovilla L, Vitale I, Vacchelli E, Adjemian S, Agostinis P, Apetoh L, Aranda F, Barnaba V, Bloy N, Bracci L, Breckpot K, Brough D, Buqué A, Castro MG, Cirone M, Colombo MI, Cremer I, Demaria S, Dini L, Eliopoulos AG, Faggioni A, Formenti SC, Fučíková J, Gabriele L, Gaipl US, Galon J, Garg A, Ghiringhelli F, Giese NA, Guo ZS, Hemminki A, Herrmann M, Hodge JW, Holdenrieder S, Honeychurch J, Hu HM, Huang X, Illidge TM, Kono K, Korbelik M, Krysko DV, Loi S, Lowenstein PR, Lugli E, Ma Y, Madeo F, Manfredi AA, Martins I, Mavilio D, Menger L, Merendino N, Michaud M, Mignot G, Mossman KL, Multhoff G, Oehler R, Palombo F, Panaretakis T, Pol J, Proietti E, Ricci JE, Riganti C, Rovere-Querini P, Rubartelli A, Sistigu A, Smyth MJ, Sonnemann J, Spisek R, Stagg J, Sukkurwala AQ, Tartour E, Thorburn A, Thorne SH, Vandenabeele P, Velotti F, Workenhe ST, Yang H, Zong WX, Zitvogel L, Kroemer G, Galluzzi L. Consensus guidelines for the detection of immunogenic cell death. Oncoimmunology. 2014 Dec 13;3(9):e955691. eCollection 2014 Oct. Review. PubMed PMID: 25941621; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4292729.

95: Lowenstein PR, Baker GJ, Castro MG. Cracking the glioma-NK inhibitory code: toward successful innate immunotherapy. Oncoimmunology. 2014 Dec 21;3(11):e965573. eCollection 2014 Nov. PubMed PMID: 25941594; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4292565.

96: Krůpa P, Řehák S, Diaz-Garcia D, Filip S. NANOTECHNOLOGY - NEW TRENDS IN THE TREATMENT OF BRAIN TUMOURS. Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove). 2014;57(4):142-50. doi: 10.14712/18059694.2015.79. Review. PubMed PMID: 25938897.

97: Surej Kumar LK, Vinod MK, Menon PV. Lateral orbital approach: Gateway to intraorbital lesions. Natl J Maxillofac Surg. 2014 Jul-Dec;5(2):217-20. doi: 10.4103/0975-5950.154841. PubMed PMID: 25937740; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4405971.

98: Lawlor M, Perry R, Hunt BJ, Plant GT. Strokes and vision: The management of ischemic arterial disease affecting the retina and occipital lobe. Surv Ophthalmol. 2015 Jul-Aug;60(4):296-309. doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2014.12.003. Epub 2014 Dec 31. Review. PubMed PMID: 25937273.

99: Goh CH, Lu YY, Lau BL, Oy J, Lee HK, Liew D, Wong A. Brain and spinal tumour. Med J Malaysia. 2014 Dec;69(6):261-7. PubMed PMID: 25934956.

100: Nagar A, Yew P, Fairley D, Hanrahan M, Cooke S, Thompson I, Elbaz W. Report of an outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection caused by ribotype 053 in a neurosurgery unit. J Infect Prev. 2015 May;16(3):126-130. doi: 10.1177/1757177414560250. Epub 2014 Dec 16. PubMed PMID: 28989415; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5074116.

101: Harnod T, Li YF, Lin CL, Chang SN, Sung FC, Kao CH. Higher-dose uses of zolpidem will increase the subsequent risk of developing benign brain tumors. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2015;27(2):e107-11. doi: 10.1176/appi.neuropsych.14010006. Epub 2014 Dec 12. PubMed PMID: 25923854.

102: Sun K, Pheiffer TS, Simpson AL, Weis JA, Thompson RC, Miga MI. Near Real-Time Computer Assisted Surgery for Brain Shift Correction Using Biomechanical Models. IEEE J Transl Eng Health Med. 2014 Apr 30;2. pii: 2500113. PubMed PMID: 25914864; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4405800.

103: Plata Bello J, Febles P. Parsonage-Turner syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease: A possible physiopathological relationship. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2014 Dec;25 Suppl 1:264-5. doi: 10.5152/tjg.2014.4410. PubMed PMID: 25910333.

104: Howarth GR, Goolab B, Dunn RN, Fieggen AG. Public somnambulism: a general lack of awareness of the consequences of increasing medical negligence litigation. S Afr Med J. 2014 Nov;104(11):752-3. PubMed PMID: 25909113.

105: Roytowski D, Smith TR, Fieggen AG, Taylor A. Impressions of defensive medical practice and medical litigation among South African neurosurgeons. S Afr Med J. 2014 Nov;104(11):736-8. PubMed PMID: 25909109.

106: Hayes J, Thygesen H, Droop A, Hughes TA, Westhead D, Lawler SE, Wurdak H, Short SC. Prognostic microRNAs in high-grade glioma reveal a link to oligodendrocyte precursor differentiation. Oncoscience. 2014 Dec 26;2(3):252-62. eCollection 2015. PubMed PMID: 25897422; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4394131.

107: Malik ZA, Mir SA, Naqash IA, Sofi KP, Wani AA. A prospective, randomized, double blind study to compare the effects of equiosmolar solutions of 3% hypertonic saline and 20% mannitol on reduction of brain-bulk during elective craniotomy for supratentorial brain tumor resection. Anesth Essays Res. 2014 Sep-Dec;8(3):388-92. doi: 10.4103/0259-1162.143155. PubMed PMID: 25886341; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4258974.

108: Freedman MS, Comi G, De Stefano N, Barkhof F, Polman CH, Uitdehaag BM, Lehr L, Stubinski B, Kappos L. Moving toward earlier treatment of multiple sclerosis: Findings from a decade of clinical trials and implications for clinical practice. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2014 Mar;3(2):147-55. doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2013.07.001. Epub 2013 Jul 31. Review. PubMed PMID: 25878002.

109: Gnanapavan S, Sillery E, Acheson JF, Toosy AT. Parinaud's syndrome - A rare presentation of clinically isolated syndrome. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2014 May;3(3):398-401. doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2013.09.003. Epub 2013 Dec 4. PubMed PMID: 25876480.

110: Lee JW, Kim NH, Milanesi A. Thyroid Hormone Signaling in Muscle Development, Repair and Metabolism. J Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2014 Jul-Sep;2(3):1046. PubMed PMID: 25866834; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4390064.

111: Almarzouqi SJ, Morgan ML, Lee AG. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension in the Middle East: A growing concern. Saudi J Ophthalmol. 2015 Jan-Mar;29(1):26-31. doi: 10.1016/j.sjopt.2014.09.013. Epub 2014 Sep 28. Review. PubMed PMID: 25859136; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4314590.

112: Kanagalingam S, Subramanian PS. Cerebral venous sinus stenting for pseudotumor cerebri: A review. Saudi J Ophthalmol. 2015 Jan-Mar;29(1):3-8. doi: 10.1016/j.sjopt.2014.09.007. Epub 2014 Sep 27. Review. PubMed PMID: 25859134; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4314570.

113: Beer-Furlan A, Gomes MQ, Santo MP, Dias PS, Casarolli C, Teixeira MJ. The evolution of endoscopic approaches to the lateral cavernous sinus. J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2015 Mar;76(2):163-4. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1390399. Epub 2014 Oct 26. PubMed PMID: 25844301; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4375043.

114: Alobaid A, Aref M, Bennardo MR, Farrokhyar F, Reddy K. Facial Nerve Outcome after Vestibular Schwannoma Resection: A Comparative Meta-Analysis of Endoscopic versus Open Retrosigmoid Approach. J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2015 Mar;76(2):157-62. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1383858. Epub 2014 Nov 26. PubMed PMID: 25844300; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4375046.

115: Carlson AP, Loveren HR, Youssef AS, Agazzi S. Junctional Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysms: The Schrödinger's Cat of Vascular Neurosurgery. J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2015 Mar;76(2):150-6. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1396596. Epub 2014 Nov 26. PubMed PMID: 25844299; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4375045.

116: Awadalla AM, Ezzeddine H, Fawzy N, Saeed MA, Ahmad MR. Immediate single-stage reconstruction of complex frontofaciobasal injuries: part I. J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2015 Mar;76(2):108-16. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1389371. Epub 2014 Oct 7. PubMed PMID: 25844296; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4375041.

117: Krisht KM, Shelton C, Couldwell WT. Early Conquest of the Rock: Julius Lempert's Life and the Complete Apicectomy Technique for the Treatment of Suppurative Petrous Apicitis. J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2015 Mar;76(2):101-7. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1389372. Epub 2014 Oct 7. PubMed PMID: 25844295; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4375049.

118: Perrini P. Technical nuances of autologous pericranium harvesting for dural closure in Chiari malformation surgery. J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2015 Mar;76(2):90-3. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1389370. Epub 2014 Sep 29. PubMed PMID: 25844293; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4375047.

119: Donnarumma P, Tarantino R, Palmarini V, De Giacomo T, Delfini R. Thoracic Spondylodiscitis Caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a Superinfection of Pulmonary Tuberculous Granuloma in an Immunocompetent Patient: A Case Report. Global Spine J. 2015 Apr;5(2):144-7. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1390009. Epub 2014 Aug 30. PubMed PMID: 25844289; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4369207.

120: Hawasli AH, Chang J, Reynolds MR, Ray WZ. Transfer of the brachialis to the anterior interosseous nerve as a treatment strategy for cervical spinal cord injury: technical note. Global Spine J. 2015 Apr;5(2):110-7. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1396760. Epub 2014 Dec 15. PubMed PMID: 25844283; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4369208.

121: Vanni D, Sirabella FS, Guelfi M, Pantalone A, Galzio R, Salini V, Magliani V. Microdiskectomy and translaminar approach: minimal invasiveness and flavum ligament preservation. Global Spine J. 2015 Apr;5(2):84-92. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1395784. Epub 2014 Nov 10. PubMed PMID: 25844280; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4369203.

122: Pogoda K, Chin L, Georges PC, Byfield FJ, Bucki R, Kim R, Weaver M, Wells RG, Marcinkiewicz C, Janmey PA. Compression stiffening of brain and its effect on mechanosensing by glioma cells. New J Phys. 2014 Jul;16:075002. PubMed PMID: 25844043; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4380293.

123: Matinian VV, Belousova EI, Saltanov AI. [Ultrasound guided catheterization of thoracic paravertebral space]. Anesteziol Reanimatol. 2014 Sep-Oct;59(5):57-8. Russian. PubMed PMID: 25842944.

124: Ledić D, Girotto D, Pal S, Kolbah B. Risk factors for subdural bleeding in elderly population. Coll Antropol. 2014 Dec;38(4):1195-8. PubMed PMID: 25842756.

125: Flores RA, Bailard N, Palvadi R. Methodological weaknesses of block study make analyzing results very difficult. AANA J. 2014 Oct;82(5):336. PubMed PMID: 25842646.

126: Mari AR, Shah I, Imran M, Ashraf J. Role of intraoperative ultrasound in achieving complete resection of intra-axial solid brain tumours. J Pak Med Assoc. 2014 Dec;64(12):1343-7. PubMed PMID: 25842574.

127: Berggren J, Baker LL. Therapeutic application of Electrostimulation and constraint induced movement therapy in perinatal brachial plexus injury: A case report. J Hand Ther. 2015 Apr-Jun;28(2):217-20; quiz 221. doi: 10.1016/j.jht.2014.12.006. Epub 2014 Dec 17. PubMed PMID: 25841560.

128: D'Antonio S, Bagnasco A, Bonetti L, Sasso L. [Observational study on interruptions during nurses work in two surgical wards of a hospital in Liguria]. Prof Inferm. 2014 Oct-Dec;67(4):211-8. doi: 10.7429/pi.2014.674211. Italian. PubMed PMID: 25837476.

129: Minami K, Yoshitani K, Inatomi Y, Sugiyama Y, Iida H, Ohnishi Y. A Retrospective Examination of the Efficacy of Paravertebral Block for Patients Requiring Intraoperative High-Dose Unfractionated Heparin Administration During Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2015 Aug;29(4):937-41. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2014.12.009. Epub 2014 Dec 8. PubMed PMID: 25836954.

130: Ibebuike K, Ouma J. Demographic profile of patients diagnosed with intracranial meningiomas in two academic hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa: a 12-month prospective study. Afr Health Sci. 2014 Dec;14(4):939-45. doi: 10.4314/ahs.v14i4.24. PubMed PMID: 25834505; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4370075.

131: Briasoulis A, Bakris G. Renal Denervation After SYMPLICITY HTN-3: Where Do We Go? Can J Cardiol. 2015 May;31(5):642-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cjca.2014.12.004. Epub 2014 Dec 11. Review. PubMed PMID: 25828371.

132: Liu J, Zhu Y, Hu W, Feng Z. TRIM32 is a novel negative regulator of p53. Mol Cell Oncol. 2014 Dec 1;2(2):e970951. doi: 10.4161/23723548.2014.970951. eCollection 2015 Apr-Jun. PubMed PMID: 27308422; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4904883.

133: Lau SK, Zhao X, Carmona R, Knipprath E, Simpson DR, Nath SK, Kim GY, Hattangadi JA, Chen CC, Murphy KT. Frameless single-isocenter intensity modulated stereotactic radiosurgery for simultaneous treatment of multiple intracranial metastases. Transl Cancer Res. 2014 Aug 1;3(4):383-390. PubMed PMID: 25821723; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4374489.

134: Jia D, Rao C, Xue S, Lei J. Purification, characterization and neuroprotective effects of a polysaccharide from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Carbohydr Polym. 2015 May 20;122:93-100. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.12.032. Epub 2014 Dec 31. PubMed PMID: 25817647.

135: Sankar T, Chakravarty MM, Bescos A, Lara M, Obuchi T, Laxton AW, McAndrews MP, Tang-Wai DF, Workman CI, Smith GS, Lozano AM. Deep Brain Stimulation Influences Brain Structure in Alzheimer's Disease. Brain Stimul. 2015 May-Jun;8(3):645-54. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2014.11.020. Epub 2014 Dec 3. PubMed PMID: 25814404; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5659851.

136: Orabona GD, Abbate V, Piombino P, Romano A, Schonauer F, Iaconetta G, Salzano G, Farina F, Califano L. Warthin's tumour: Aetiopathogenesis dilemma, ten years of our experience. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2015 May;43(4):427-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jcms.2014.11.019. Epub 2014 Nov 28. PubMed PMID: 25814196.

137: Jeoung YO, Yang TK, Bak YI, Lim IS, Sim KB. An ideal model of informed consent communication. Korean J Med Educ. 2014 Mar;26(1):9-17. doi: 10.3946/kjme.2014.26.1.9. Epub 2014 Mar 1. PubMed PMID: 25805075.

138: Etezadi F, Aklamli M, Najafi A, Khajavi M, Shariat Moharari R, Mirrahimi B, Mortazavi SA, Mojtahedzadeh M. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effects of peri-operative infusion of magnesium sulfate on the microsurgical procedures for intracranial tumors. Anesth Pain Med. 2014 Nov 30;4(5):e22379. doi: 10.5812/aapm.22379. eCollection 2014 Dec. PubMed PMID: 25798379; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4358335.

139: Huo L, Wang X, Allen PK, Wang L, Liao Y, Han Z, Shen L, Tu Q, Zhong M, Zhuang Y, Li J, Hong J. Predictors of long-term survival following postoperative radiochemotherapy for pathologically confirmed suprasellar germ cell tumors. Mol Clin Oncol. 2015 Mar;3(2):430-434. Epub 2014 Nov 20. PubMed PMID: 25798281; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4360867.

140: Lee HS, Tihan T. The basics of intraoperative diagnosis in neuropathology. Surg Pathol Clin. 2015 Mar;8(1):27-47. doi: 10.1016/j.path.2014.10.006. Epub 2014 Dec 8. Review. PubMed PMID: 25783820.

141: Williams KM, Schulte RW, Schubert KE, Wroe AJ. Evaluation of mathematical algorithms for automatic patient alignment in radiosurgery. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2015 Jun;14(3):326-33. doi: 10.1177/1533034614547458. Epub 2014 Sep 10. PubMed PMID: 25782189.

142: Huang Y, Nie S, Zhou S, Li K, Sun J, Zhao J, Fei B, Wang Z, Ye H, Hong Q, Gao X, Duan S. PPARD rs2016520 polymorphism and circulating lipid levels connect with brain diseases in Han Chinese and suggest sex-dependent effects. Biomed Pharmacother. 2015 Mar;70:7-11. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2014.12.031. Epub 2014 Dec 23. PubMed PMID: 25776471.

143: Governale LS. Minimally invasive pediatric neurosurgery. Pediatr Neurol. 2015 Apr;52(4):389-97. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2014.08.036. Epub 2014 Oct 16. Review. PubMed PMID: 25771997.

144: Shultz DB, Diehn M, Loo BW Jr. To SABR or not to SABR? Indications and contraindications for stereotactic ablative radiotherapy in the treatment of early-stage, oligometastatic, or oligoprogressive non-Small-cell lung cancer. Semin Radiat Oncol. 2015 Apr;25(2):78-86. doi: 10.1016/j.semradonc.2014.11.005. Epub 2014 Nov 25. Review. PubMed PMID: 25771411.

145: Cheng HQ. Comanagement hospitalist services for neurosurgery. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2015 Apr;26(2):295-300, x-xi. doi: 10.1016/j.nec.2014.11.004. Epub 2014 Nov 6. Review. PubMed PMID: 25771285.

146: Amadio JP, Oyesiku NM. The role of neurosurgery journals in evidence-based neurosurgical care. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2015 Apr;26(2):283-94, x. doi: 10.1016/j.nec.2014.11.001. Epub 2014 Nov 6. Review. PubMed PMID: 25771284.

147: Fehlings MG, Nater A. Development and implementation of guidelines in neurosurgery. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2015 Apr;26(2):271-82, x. doi: 10.1016/j.nec.2014.11.005. Epub 2014 Nov 6. Review. PubMed PMID: 25771283.

148: Ghobrial GM, Hamade YJ, Bendok BR, Harrop JS. Technology and simulation to improve patient safety. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2015 Apr;26(2):239-43, ix. doi: 10.1016/j.nec.2014.11.002. Epub 2014 Nov 6. Review. PubMed PMID: 25771279.

149: Parker SL, McGirt MJ, Asher AL, Selden NR. Quality improvement in neurological surgery graduate medical education. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2015 Apr;26(2):231-8, ix. doi: 10.1016/j.nec.2014.11.012. Epub 2014 Dec 17. Review. PubMed PMID: 25771278.

150: Zuckerman SL, Fargen KM, Mocco J. Neurosurgical checklists: a growing need. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2015 Apr;26(2):219-29, ix. doi: 10.1016/j.nec.2014.11.009. Epub 2014 Nov 6. Review. PubMed PMID: 25771277.

151: Davies JM, Ozpinar A, Lawton MT. Volume-outcome relationships in neurosurgery. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2015 Apr;26(2):207-18, viii. doi: 10.1016/j.nec.2014.11.015. Epub 2014 Dec 15. Review. PubMed PMID: 25771276.

152: Witiw CD, Nathan V, Bernstein M. Economics, innovation, and quality improvement in neurosurgery. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2015 Apr;26(2):197-205, viii. doi: 10.1016/j.nec.2014.11.003. Epub 2014 Nov 6. Review. PubMed PMID: 25771275.

153: Zygourakis CC, Kahn JG. Cost-effectiveness research in neurosurgery. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2015 Apr;26(2):189-96, viii. doi: 10.1016/j.nec.2014.11.008. Epub 2014 Nov 6. Review. PubMed PMID: 25771274.

154: Groman R. The relationship between national Healthcare policies and quality improvement in neurosurgery. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2015 Apr;26(2):167-75, vii-viii. doi: 10.1016/j.nec.2014.11.006. Epub 2014 Nov 6. Review. PubMed PMID: 25771272.

155: Ziewacz JE, McGirt MJ, Chewning SJ Jr. Adverse events in neurosurgery and their relationship to quality improvement. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2015 Apr;26(2):157-65, vii. doi: 10.1016/j.nec.2014.11.014. Epub 2014 Dec 19. Review. PubMed PMID: 25771271.

156: Rolston JD, Bernstein M. Errors in neurosurgery. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2015 Apr;26(2):149-55, vii. doi: 10.1016/j.nec.2014.11.011. Epub 2014 Dec 19. Review. PubMed PMID: 25771270.

157: Han SJ, Rolston JD, Lau CY, Berger MS. Improving patient safety in neurologic surgery. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2015 Apr;26(2):143-7, vii. doi: 10.1016/j.nec.2014.11.007. Epub 2014 Nov 6. Review. PubMed PMID: 25771269.

158: Shah NA, Jain NP. In reply to a letter “Not all continuous femoral nerve blocks are equivalent”. J Arthroplasty. 2015 May;30(5):897-8. doi: 10.1016/j.arth.2014.12.008. Epub 2014 Dec 18. PubMed PMID: 25769741.

159: Zhang Y, Cheng H, Xu C, Bao H, Shi H, Ge Y, Wei H. [Effects of ultrasound-guided stellate ganglion block on cerebral oxygen metabolism and postoperative cognitive dysfunction in the elderly]. Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi. 2014 Oct;31(5):1107-10. Chinese. PubMed PMID: 25764731.

160: Corallo F, Marra A, Bramanti P, Calabrò RS. Effect of cranioplasty on functional and neuro - psychological recovery after severe acquired brain injury: fact or fake? Considerations on a single case. Funct Neurol. 2014 Oct-Dec;29(4):273-5. PubMed PMID: 25764258; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4370441.

161: Ozkan Z, San Ozdemir C, Yasar G, Altas O, Koc M, Gul Y, Durdag E. An unusual mesenteric tumor 'paraganglioma': a case report. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2014 Dec 14;16(12):e16837. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.16837. eCollection 2014 Dec. PubMed PMID: 25763236; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4341248.

162: Samini F, Gharedaghi M, Khajavi M, Samini M. The etiologies of low back pain in patients with lumbar disk herniation. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2014 Oct 5;16(10):e15670. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.15670. eCollection 2014 Oct. PubMed PMID: 25763198; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4329753.

163: Presutti L, Magnaguagno F, Pavesi G, Cunsolo E, Pinna G, Alicandri-Ciufelli M, Marchioni D, Prontera A, Gioacchini FM. Combined endoscopic-microscopic approach for vestibular schwannoma removal: outcomes in a cohort of 81 patients. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2014 Dec;34(6):427-33. PubMed PMID: 25762836; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4346999.

164: Sinha A, Sabharwal A, Yadav N, Gupta RK, Patir R. Mature cystic retroperitoneal teratoma with well differentiated renal elements: relation to spinal dysraphism. European J Pediatr Surg Rep. 2014 Jun;2(1):46-9. doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1351393. Epub 2013 Aug 5. PubMed PMID: 25755970; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4336057.

165: Chen Z, Chen JT, Johnson M, Gossman ZC, Hendrickson M, Sakaie K, Martinez-Rubio C, Gale JT, Trapp BD. Cuprizone does not induce CNS demyelination in nonhuman primates. Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2015 Feb;2(2):208-13. doi: 10.1002/acn3.159. Epub 2014 Dec 18. PubMed PMID: 25750925; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4338961.

166: Jarfaut A, Clauzel-Montserrat M, Vigouroux D, Kehrli P, Gaudias J, Kempf JF, Levêque D, Nivoix Y, Gourieux B. [Feedback on the evaluation of clinical pharmacy activities developed in surgery]. Ann Pharm Fr. 2015 Mar;73(2):123-32. doi: 10.1016/j.pharma.2014.09.001. Epub 2014 Sep 27. French. PubMed PMID: 25745943.

167: Cullu N, Deveer M, Karakas E, Karakas O, Bozkus F, Celik B. Traumatic fronto-ethmoidal encephalocele: a rare case. Eurasian J Med. 2015 Feb;47(1):69-71. doi: 10.5152/eajm.2014.50. Epub 2014 Aug 26. PubMed PMID: 25745349; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4341932.

168: Nair AR, Gopalakrishnan CV, Kapilamoorthy TR, Radhakrishnan N. Rosette forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle in squash cytology smear. J Cytol. 2014 Oct-Dec;31(4):215-7. doi: 10.4103/0970-9371.151138. PubMed PMID: 25745291; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4349016.

169: Nonaka M, Yawata T, Takemura M, Higashi Y, Nakai E, Shimizu K, Ueba T. Elevated cell invasion in a tumor sphere culture of RSV-M mouse glioma cells. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2015;55(1):60-70. doi: 10.2176/nmc.oa.2014-0067. Epub 2014 Dec 20. PubMed PMID: 25744351; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4533394.

170: Nagane M. Dose-dense temozolomide: is it still promising? Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2015;55(1):38-49. doi: 10.2176/nmc.ra.2014-0277. Epub 2014 Dec 20. Review. PubMed PMID: 25744349; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4533399.

171: Saito T, Muragaki Y, Maruyama T, Tamura M, Nitta M, Okada Y. Intraoperative functional mapping and monitoring during glioma surgery. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2015;55(1):1-13. doi: 10.2176/nmc.ra.2014-0215. Epub 2014 Dec 20. Review. PubMed PMID: 25744346; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4533401.

172: Baydin A, Amanvermez R, Tuncel ÖK, Ocak M, Meric M, Cokluk C. Ischemia-modified albumin is not better than creatine kinase-MB and cardiac troponin I in predicting a cardiac injury in nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Am J Emerg Med. 2015 Apr;33(4):488-92. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2014.10.007. Epub 2014 Oct 12. PubMed PMID: 25744145.

173: Dos Santos D, Monsignore LM, Nakiri GS, Cruz AA, Colli BO, Abud DG. Imaging diagnosis of dural and direct cavernous carotid fistulae. Radiol Bras. 2014 Jul-Aug;47(4):251-5. doi: 10.1590/0100-3984.2013.1799. PubMed PMID: 25741093; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4337128.

174: Mukundan L, Lie OV, Leary LD, Papanastassiou AM, Morgan LC, Szabó CÁ. Subdural electrode recording of generalized photoepileptic responses. Epilepsy Behav Case Rep. 2014 Dec 26;3:4-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ebcr.2014.10.002. eCollection 2015. PubMed PMID: 25737962; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4338858.

175: Thiel A, Black SE, Rochon EA, Lanthier S, Hartmann A, Chen JL, Mochizuki G, Zumbansen A, Heiss WD; NORTHSTAR study group. Non-invasive repeated therapeutic stimulation for aphasia recovery: a multilingual, multicenter aphasia trial. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2015 Apr;24(4):751-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2014.10.021. Epub 2014 Nov 6. PubMed PMID: 25735707.

176: Ekşi MŞ, Bayri Y, Saraçoğlu A, Uyar Bozkurt S, Konya D. Primary subcutaneous hydatid cyst over thoracic spine: a case report and review of the literature. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2014 Dec;38(4):264-9. doi: 10.5152/tpd.2014.3198. Review. PubMed PMID: 25732887.

177: Briet C, Salenave S, Chanson P. Pituitary apoplexy. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2015 Mar;44(1):199-209. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2014.10.016. Epub 2014 Nov 5. Review. PubMed PMID: 25732655.

178: Dallapiazza RF, Jane JA Jr. Outcomes of endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2015 Mar;44(1):105-15. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2014.10.010. Epub 2014 Nov 4. Review. PubMed PMID: 25732647.

179: Sav A, Rotondo F, Syro LV, Di Ieva A, Cusimano MD, Kovacs K. Invasive, atypical and aggressive pituitary neuroendocrine tumors and carcinomas. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2015 Mar;44(1):99-104. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2014.10.008. Epub 2014 Nov 4. Review. PubMed PMID: 25732646.

180: Glezer A, Bronstein MD. Prolactinomas. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2015 Mar;44(1):71-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2014.11.003. Epub 2014 Nov 6. Review. PubMed PMID: 25732643.

181: Raverot G, Vasiljevic A, Jouanneau E, Trouillas J. A prognostic clinicopathologic classification of pituitary endocrine tumors. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2015 Mar;44(1):11-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2014.10.001. Epub 2014 Nov 4. Review. PubMed PMID: 25732637.

182: Morimoto O, Senzai M, Mori S, Takiuchi D, Adachi S, Azama T, Hirao T, Ota H, Kitada M, Shibata K. [Multidisciplinary therapy for recurrent pancreatic cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2014 Nov;41(12):2172-4. Japanese. PubMed PMID: 25731460.

183: Yokosuka T, Nakajima Y, Kobayashi T, Takeda A, Yasuno M. [Long-term survival following resection of primary rectal cancer metachronous metastases and salvage surgeries for relapsed lesions after stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung metastases - a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2014 Nov;41(12):2053-5. Japanese. PubMed PMID: 25731420.

184: Nishimura J, Noda E, Kitayama K, Nomura S, Teraoka H, Nishino H, Hirakawa K. [A case of rectal cancer with brain metastases successfully treated with combined modality therapy - a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2014 Nov;41(12):1764-6. Japanese. PubMed PMID: 25731322.

185: Glass HC, Rogers EE, Peloquin S, Bonifacio SL. Interdisciplinary approach to neurocritical care in the intensive care nursery. Semin Pediatr Neurol. 2014 Dec;21(4):241-7. doi: 10.1016/j.spen.2014.10.003. Epub 2014 Oct 27. PubMed PMID: 25727505.

186: Corbett A, Achterberg W, Husebo B, Lobbezoo F, de Vet H, Kunz M, Strand L, Constantinou M, Tudose C, Kappesser J, de Waal M, Lautenbacher S; EU-COST action td 1005 Pain Assessment in Patients with Impaired Cognition, especially Dementia Collaborators: http://www.cost-td1005.net/. An international road map to improve pain assessment in people with impaired cognition: the development of the Pain Assessment in Impaired Cognition (PAIC) meta-tool. BMC Neurol. 2014 Dec 10;14:229. doi: 10.1186/s12883-014-0229-5. PubMed PMID: 25726717; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4279897.

187: Dougherty DD, Rezai AR, Carpenter LL, Howland RH, Bhati MT, O'Reardon JP, Eskandar EN, Baltuch GH, Machado AD, Kondziolka D, Cusin C, Evans KC, Price LH, Jacobs K, Pandya M, Denko T, Tyrka AR, Brelje T, Deckersbach T, Kubu C, Malone DA Jr. A Randomized Sham-Controlled Trial of Deep Brain Stimulation of the Ventral Capsule/Ventral Striatum for Chronic Treatment-Resistant Depression. Biol Psychiatry. 2015 Aug 15;78(4):240-8. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2014.11.023. Epub 2014 Dec 13. PubMed PMID: 25726497.

188: Dualé C, Gayraud G, Taheri H, Bastien O, Schoeffler P. A French Nationwide Survey on Anesthesiologist-Perceived Barriers to the Use of Epidural and Paravertebral Block in Thoracic Surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2015 Aug;29(4):942-9. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2014.11.006. Epub 2014 Nov 11. PubMed PMID: 25726182.

189: Franke AJ, Rosati LM, Pawlik TM, Kumar R, Herman JM. The role of radiation therapy in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings. Semin Oncol. 2015 Feb;42(1):144-62. doi: 10.1053/j.seminoncol.2014.12.013. Epub 2014 Dec 8. Review. PubMed PMID: 25726059.

190: Brooks C. Critical care nursing in acute postoperative neurosurgical patients. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 2015 Mar;27(1):33-45. doi: 10.1016/j.cnc.2014.10.002. Epub 2014 Dec 15. Review. PubMed PMID: 25725534.

191: de Almeida JR, Vescan AD, Witterick IJ, Gullane PJ, Gentili F, Ringash J, Thoma A, Lohfeld L. Changes Experienced in Quality of Life for Skull Base Surgical Patients: A Qualitative Case Study. J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2015 Mar;76(2):129-144. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1371520. Epub 2014 Nov 6. PubMed PMID: 28856080; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5566088.

192: Wang GQ, Li SQ, Huang YH, Zhang WW, Ruan WW, Qin JZ, Li Y, Yin WM, Li YJ, Ren ZJ, Zhu JQ, Ding YY, Peng JQ, Li PJ. Can minimally invasive puncture and drainage for hypertensive spontaneous Basal Ganglia intracerebral hemorrhage improve patient outcome: a prospective non-randomized comparative study. Mil Med Res. 2014 Jun 1;1:10. doi: 10.1186/2054-9369-1-10. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 25722868; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4340857.

193: Vitanovics D, Major O, Lovas L, Banczerowski P. [Tailored cranioplasty using CAD-CAM technology]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2014 Nov 30;67(11-12):390-6. Hungarian. PubMed PMID: 25720241.

194: Balogh A, Czigléczki G, Papal Z, Preul MC, Banczerowski P. [The interactive neuroanatomical simulation and practical application of frontotemporal transsylvian exposure in neurosurgery]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2014 Nov 30;67(11-12):376-83. Hungarian. PubMed PMID: 25720239.

195: Faridaalaee G, Taghian A, Sattarzadeh Ghadim T. Posttraumatic hemicerebral infarction in a four-year-old girl. Trauma Mon. 2014 Nov;19(4):e16054. doi: 10.5812/traumamon.16054. Epub 2014 Sep 10. PubMed PMID: 25717443; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4310154.

196: Anosov AA, Balashov IS, Beliaev RV, Vilkov VA, Garskov RV, Kazanskiĭ AS, Mansfel'd AD, Shcherbakov MI. [Acoustic thermometry of the patient brain with traumatic brain injury]. Biofizika. 2014 May-Jun;59(3):545-51. Russian. PubMed PMID: 25715599.

197: Betkier-Lipińska K, Ryczek R, Cwetsch A. [New directions in the therapy of pulmonary arterial hypertension]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2014 Dec;37(222):321-3. Polish. PubMed PMID: 25715569.

198: Serova NK. [Historical and modern perspective on neuro-ophthalmology]. Vestn Oftalmol. 2014 Nov-Dec;130(6):20-2. Russian. PubMed PMID: 25715548.

199: Ermak TN, Peregudova AB. [Location of foci in cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients]. Ter Arkh. 2014;86(11):24-8. Russian. PubMed PMID: 25715483.

200: Bodiu A. Diagnosis and operatory treatment of the patients with failed back surgery caused by herniated disk relapse. J Med Life. 2014 Oct-Dec;7(4):533-7. PubMed PMID: 25713616; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4316133.

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