Squamous cell carcinoma

see Squamous cell lung cancer.

Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin is usually not life-threatening, though it can be aggressive. Untreated, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin can grow large or spread to other parts of your body, causing serious complications.

Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of sinonasal malignancy. Despite improvements in surgical resection and adjuvant therapy, which are considered the standard of care, the outcome for patients with locoregionally advanced disease remains poor. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of induction chemotherapy in patients with locoregionally advanced sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma and to determine the oncologic outcomes in those patients.

Methods: The study included 123 consecutive patients with previously untreated, locoregionally advanced (stage III and IV) sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma who were treated with curative intent at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center between 1988 and 2017 with induction chemotherapy followed by definitive local therapy. Patient demographics, tumor staging, treatment details, and oncologic outcomes were reviewed. The outcomes of this study included response to induction chemotherapy, recurrence, organ preservation, and survival.

Results: The median follow-up was 32.6 months (range, 12.4-240 months). Of the 123 patients, 110 (89%) had T4 disease, and 13 (11%) had T3 disease. Lymph node metastases at the time of presentation was observed in 36 patients (29.3%). The overall stage was stage IV in 111 patients (90.2%) and stage III in 12 patients (9.8%). The chemotherapy regimen consisted of the combination of a platinum and taxanes in most cases (109 patients; 88.6%), either as a doublet (41 patients) or in combination with a third agent, such as 5-fluorouracil (34 patients), ifosfamide (26 patients), or cetuximab (8 patients). After induction chemotherapy, 71 patients (57.8%) achieved at least a partial response, and 6 patients had a complete response. Subsequent treatment after induction chemotherapy was either: 1) definitive chemoradiation or radiation followed by surgical salvage for any residual disease, or 2) surgery followed by adjuvant radiation or chemoradiation. Overall, 54 patients (49.5%) underwent surgical resection. The 2-year overall and disease-free survival rates for the whole cohort were 61.4% and 67.9%, respectively. The rate of orbital preservation was 81.5%. The recurrence rate was 26.8% (33 patients), and distant metastases occurred in 8 patients (6.5%). Patients who had at least a partial response or stable disease had significantly better overall and disease-free survival than those who had progressive disease (P = .028 and P = .021, respectively).

Conclusions: The current results indicate that a high proportion of patients with sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma achieved a favorable response to induction chemotherapy. The data suggest that response to induction chemotherapy is associated with an improved outcome and a good chance of organ preservation. The oncologic outcomes in this cohort with locally advanced (mostly T4) disease are better than those historically reported in the literature. Further study of induction chemotherapy in patients with advanced sinonasal squamous carcinoma is warranted 1).

Abdelmeguid AS, Teeramatwanich W, Roberts DB, Amit M, Ferraroto R, Glisson BS, Kupferman ME, Su SY, Phan J, Garden AS, Raza SM, DeMonte F, Hanna EY. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locoregionally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses. Cancer. 2021 Feb 10. doi: 10.1002/cncr.33452. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33567468.
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